- The Muslim Brotherhood is an Islamic group that aims at political, social and economic reform and all aspects of life from a comprehensive Islamic perspective in Egypt and the countries in which it is spread. Its motto is "'Allah is our objective; the Prophet is our leader; the Quran is our law; Jihad is our way; dying in the way of Allah is our highest hope."
Goals and Objectives
- the true teachings of Islam, working to imbue the nation with the full Islamic character in all aspects of life.”
- The Muslim Brotherhood was founded by Imam Hassan Al-Banna in the city of Ismailia in 1347 AH, 1928 AD. His idea is to create the Muslim individual, the Muslim home and family that preserves its entity to reach the Muslim community, and which creates an Islamic government that leads and works for Muslim community.
- The Muslim Brotherhood considers its reference from Islam as represented in the Holy Quran and the Sunnah, as well as the Sharia.
- The Muslim Brotherhood believes in comprehensive institutionalization in which everyone cooperates to protect the prosperity of the country, Also to protect the people of various religious affiliations.
- The Muslim Brotherhood works for their purpose purely by their faith, seeking Allah’s pleasure. They have no connection with a particular group or a particular sect. Their idea is for Islam and Muslims at every time and place. The Muslim Brotherhood respect all organizations, institutions and others, as long as they work to raise Islam, protect Islam and adhere to the principles of Islam. They give advice in the shadow of love. ''He has legislated for you as the religion what He enjoined on Nuh, (Noah) and that which We have revealed to you, (The Prophet) and what We have enjoined on Ibrahim and Musa and Isa (Abraham, Moses and Jesus, respectively) (saying), "Keep up the religion and do not be disunited therein." (42:13)
- The Muslim Brotherhood is not hostile to peoples, religions, or institutions. They work to cooperate with everyone for the benefit of all humanity. They also are not hostile to Western countries or their peoples. The Muslim Brotherhood wishes well for all. But at the same time, they refuse subordination or imposition of dictates on their homeland or peoples. The Muslim Brotherhood will always work against subordination in various ways whether it is in political, diplomatic, media, cultural, public, social, relief, and educational fields.
- The Muslim Brotherhood is an integral part of its people, identity and affiliation that believes in the unity of its people and the unity of its religious, political and intellectual components. • The Muslim Brotherhood also adheres to the rights of the people and their national constants.
- The Muslim Brotherhood works on educating and reforming all members of society, whether it is a child, girl, man or woman, within the framework drawn by the true Sharia, and the relationships defined by Islam.
- The Muslim Brotherhood believes in openness to all and engages to advance the nation's interest and national security as well as to fight corruption. It also secures freedom and social justice.
- The Muslim Brotherhood works to spread Islamic teachings, defend Islam within the limits of the law. Along with addressing economic crises, curing rampant social ills, strengthening moral virtues, reviving a sense of the nation’s dignity, and liberating souls from weakness, despair, and vice.
- The Muslim Brotherhood's approach includes the present and the future. They work to achieve it in a "construction, not demolish" way. They believe that the steps of reform is gradual.
- The Muslim Brotherhood works to liberate the Islamic homeland in all its parts from every dictatorship. And to help Muslim minorities everywhere as well as to strive to unite all Muslims so that they become one nation.
- The Muslim Brotherhood works on sincere support for global cooperation under the Islamic Sharia that preserves freedoms and human rights and participates in building a human civilization on a new basis of a synergy of faith and matter as guaranteed by the comprehensive systems of Islam.
- The Muslim Brotherhood guarantees women their full rights as approved under Sharia law.
History of the Muslim Brotherhood
in 1347AH/ 1928AD in association with six individuals, namely Hafez Abdel Hamid “a carpenter in the Frankish neighbourhood”, Ahmed Al-Hosari “a barber on Al-Jami Street in Ismailia”, Fouad Ibrahim “a clothes launderer in the European neighbourhood”, Abdel Rahman Hassaballah a "driver in the Canal Company", Ismail Ezz "a gardener in the Canal Company", Zaki Al-Maghrabi, "an owner of a tire shop in the market street in Ismailia". They believed in the idea and set out to communicate it to people in various cities and villages of Egypt, where it achieved success in spreading the idea among people.
In October 1932, Imam Al-Banna was transferred to Cairo to work at Abbas I School in Sabtieh, where the Brotherhood’s board of directors met in Ismailia and decided to consider Cairo as the “general center of the Muslim Brotherhood.”
On Safar 22, 1352 AH , June 15, 1933, the first General Shura Council of the Muslim Brotherhood was held in the city of Ismailia, and the first guidance office was chosen on that date. The Muslim Brotherhood issued a newspaper to be the mouthpiece for their beliefs and the expressive of their goals.
The Muslim Brotherhood took care of all segments of society. The first women's group for Muslim sisters was formed in Ismailia on April 26, 1933 and the first section for students was formed in the same year.
The Muslim Brotherhood worked on all levels and pursued political, economic and social reform. They established economic companies, charitable societies, and medical clinics to help the Egyptian people.
They also defended their homeland by sending messages to the king or governments and international bodies, or by boycotting the products of the colonizer, or by demonstrations.
They also contributed to facing the crises that faced Egypt especially when cholera swept through in 1947. The Minister of Health sent a letter to thank the Muslim Brotherhood for their efforts in containing the disease and how their clinics were accommodating patients.
They also took the lead when the 1992 earthquake occurred. The international newspapers praised their role in this disaster when their input was earlier than the government.
Concerning the issues of the Islamic world, the Muslim Brotherhood had a role in introducing the Palestinian cause and even pushing its best youth to defend Palestine in the 1948 war. They also stood by all the liberation movements in Islamic countries that were seeking their independence.
The Muslim Brotherhood also sent the best of its youth to fight the British in the Canal War in 1951, which all foreign newspapers witnessed, and many of its youth were martyred for it.
The Muslim Brotherhood sacrificed a lot of their freedoms, money and lives, as they were subjected to a lot of persecution from the existing regimes. Nevertheless, the Muslim Brotherhood will remain loyal to their homelands and people. They will join hands with every loyal to their homeland to work for their freedom and elevation. However, the Muslim Brotherhood does not interfere in the affairs of states. They only use the advice and work to elevate peoples and preserve nations.
The truth about the Muslim Brotherhood
The Muslim Brotherhood believes that the rulings and teachings of Islam are comprehensive and regulate people’s affairs in this world and in the hereafter. And those who think that these teachings deal only with the devotional or spiritual aspect are mistaken in this assumption. Islam is a belief and worship, a homeland and a nationality, a religion and a state, spirituality and work, the holy Qur’an and a sword. The Holy Qur’an pronounce all of that and consider it all to be the core of Islam.
The Muslim Brotherhood’s approach is a comprehensive one. It is a Salafi Daw'ah, a Sunni way, a Sufi reality, a political body, a sports group, a scientific and cultural association, an economic company, and a social idea.
The characteristics of the Muslim Brotherhood’s approach:
Stay away from points of contention.
Stay away from the domination of notables and dignitaries
Stay away from parties and organizations
Focusing on configuration and gradual reform steps
Preferring the practical aspect of productivity over advertising.
The approach of the Muslim Brotherhood is a peaceful and intermediate approach far from all forms of violence. Imam Hasan Al Banna once said: ''The field of speech is not the field of imagination, and the field of action is not the field of speech, and the field of jihad is not the field of action, and the field of true jihad is not the field of false jihad''.
The Muslim Brotherhood relies on their own pockets to fund their activities in addition to the economic projects within the community.
The Muslim Brotherhood believes that the constitutional system of government is the closest existing system of government in the whole world to Islam.
The Muslim Brotherhood respects their own nationalism as the first basis for the revival. They do not see anything wrong with every person working for his/her country. Then support then the Arab unity as the second link in this revival. Then they work for the Islamic community as the complete fence for the general Islamic homeland.
The Muslim Brotherhood sees moderate Islamic organizations in their various fields working to support Islam and they wish them all success. The Muslim Brotherhood work to unite around the same general goals .
The Hierarchical organizational structure of the Muslim Brotherhood
The Muslim Brotherhood in every place is a single group that is divided into divisions according to places. The conduct of the Da’wah and the group’s system is supervised by Shura bodies, which are the General Guidance Office, the General Shura Council, and the Central Shura Councils.
The General Guide occupies the first rank in the group. He presides over the two bodies of authority: the General Guidance Office and the General Shura Council.
The General Guide is elected through the General Shura Council. He must have been a ''Full Brother'' for no less than 15 years and not less than 40 years of age. He may not participate in any other work except for scientific and literary works after the approval of the Guidance Office. The General Guide remains in his position for six years and it is renewable once only. The General Guide chooses one or more deputies from the members of the General Guidance Office. And in the event of his death or inability to perform his duties, his deputy performs his work until the General Shura Council meets to elect a new guide. The General Shura Council can also dismiss the Guide if he violates the duties of his position.
General Guidance Office
The General Guidance office is the supreme executive leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood. They are the supervisors of the progress of the Da'wah . They direct its policies and management. The General Guidance office are chosen by secret ballot. The term of its membership is fixed at four Hijri years, provided that all members of the General Guidance office must be among the members of the General Shura Council, and aged no less than thirty Hijri years.
The General Shura Council is the legislative authority of the Muslim Brotherhood. Their decisions are binding. The term of General Shura Council is four Hijri years.
Whoever is chosen for the Shura Council is required to be from the ''Full Brothers'' who were previously members in the Executive Office or the Shura Council in their regions, provided that the member's age is not less than thirty Hijri years, and that he has been within the Da'wah field for at least five years, and that he is characterized by moral and scientific qualities and no sentence was issued against him over the past five years.
The governorate administrative office is the executive body responsible for carrying out the Daw'ah tasks in the governorate in accordance with the general policy of the Muslim Brotherhood and the guidance of the General Guidance Office.
Each region is divided into administrative offices. Each governorate has its administrative office that supervises the areas located in this governorate. And each administrative office has a council that manages its work. The administrative council is headed by the head of the administrative office or whoever the guidance office chooses from among the ''Full Brothers''.
The governorate’s administrative office elects a treasurer and a secretary. They follow up with tasks and form various departments of the da'wah. The administrative office distributes its areas in the form of sectors to facilitate the follow-up task in the administrative office.
The administrative office is divided into regions. The region consists of all the divisions located in the circle of the center or division (a minimum of three divisions and a maximum of ten divisions).
Each region has a center that manages its work, headed by whoever is chosen by the general center from the board of directors of the division or from the ''Full Brothers''. The center shall have an agent, secretary and treasurer.
The division is the smallest of the administrative units. Each division has a board of directors including the division's official, his deputy, an agent, a secretary and a treasurer. The division has a general assembly that includes all the Brotherhood residing in the division's constituency. The Brothers in the Division are divided into ''Affiliated and Intermediate Brothers'', and ''Full Brothers'' who were approved and fulfilled their membership.